February 23 - Keynote titled OSGi in the Enterprise: Agility, Modularity, and Architecture’s Paradox
March 22 - 25 - Tutorial on Modular Architecture
June 14 - 17 - Sessions titled Turtles and Architecture and Patterns of Modular Architecture
July 26 - 30 - Two sessions on rich mobile applications and one on agile development. Half day tutorial on software process improvement.
Right on. I just won a Best Buy drawing worth $1000. Either that or I won a shiny new virus by clicking the link. Hmm...what to do. 2012-08-29
The opinions expressed on this site are my own, and not necessarily those of my employer.
In Turtles and Architecture, I talked about how important it is that we “architect all the way down”. It helps increase transparency and understanding between developers and architects by emphasizing a lot of the middle ground that noone ever seems to focus on. It’s just another reason why modularity is so important. I used the diagram at right to illustrate the point (click to enlarge). Look at the huge gap that exists if we don’t focus on the stuff highlighted by the gray bar in the middle.
One reason I like this visual is that it illustrates the social aspect of software architecture. Yet, there are other significant advantages to architecture all the way down that we haven’t explored yet. Another is structural flexibility.
Another benefit of module design in filling that middle ground is that modules can offer different benefits than classes and services. The diagram at right (click to enlarge) illustrates some of the capabilities of different types of entities.
For example, classes are pretty easily reused within an application, but because classes aren’t a unit of deployment, it’s difficult to use them across applications. Of course, intra-application reuse is a sweet spot of services, since they’re method of invocation is through some distributed protocol (SOAP, HTTP, even RMI/IIOP). Yet because services are invoked remotely, we typically like to make them coarser-grained because of the performance implications of distributed requests. So this begs the question - If a service is too coarse-grained to reuse (ie. it does more than what we want), how do I reuse some desirable behavior across applications? Well, without modules, our only other choice is the class. Since a class can’t be reused intra-process, we do one of either two things. Expose it as a service or copy the class (ie. the code). Given the circumstances, neither of these may be ideal. Another option is desirable.
Modules represent that other option. They are a finer level unit of granularity than services, and are a unit of deployment. Since each of these different types of entities are units of composition, we have tremendous flexibility in how we assemble applications. Possibly more important though is our increased ability to accommodate the architectural shifts that naturally occur as requirements evolve. Let’s look at a more concrete example.
Let’s say I have a business function called Pay Bill for which I develop a web service that can be invoked by many different consumers. That service happens to be relatively coarse-grained, and performs all the steps involved in paying the bill. These happen to include the following:
This seems reasonable. We have a nice little service that we can reuse any time we want to pay a bill. Unfortunately, the real world often gets in the way of our idealistic solutions. In fact, there are two problems that will eventually surface, and modularity benefits both scenarios. Let’s start by looking at the first scenario.
What should I do when a different scenario arises that demands I follow a slightly modified Pay Bill function?
As part of the remit step, I have a new payee that demands electronic payment. This is pretty easy actually. I simply modify the service to support electronic payments and then configure the service to context for that specific payee. So how does modularity help here?
If the service is composed of modules, it’s going to be much easier for me to understand the structure of the service, assess the impact of what’s it’s going to cost to change the service, and then introduce a new module (or modify the existing module) to provide the new capability. Without modules, I’m simply wading through the code trying to figure out all of these things. Now, the 2nd scenario.
What should I do when I want to reuse just one step of the Pay Bill function?
Let’s say another new requirement emerges. Whereas traditionally bills were entered by data entry personnel, we now have to support electronic delivery of bills. We also know that bills delivered electronically are often duplicates. It’s just one of those business things, you know? If we don’t pay the bill on the day it’s received, the billing party sends us the bill again, asking for payment. So we need to check for duplicates before we save the bill to the database and prepare it for processing. What do we do?
We could take the same approach as before and modify the Pay Bill service so that the duplicate check could be invoked separately from the higher level pay bill function. But that’s a bastardized design solution. Why? We are exposing behavior of the Pay Bill service that shouldn’t be exposed. The API is coarse-grained in some areas and fine-grained in others.
Maybe exposing the finer-grained capabilities of the Pay Bill function isn’t a severe compromise, but it is a compromise nonetheless. And we are forced to compromise because of architectural inflexibility. We don’t have architecture all the way down, and are therefore left with limited choice as to how we support the new requirement. We can either modify the service to reuse what we know is already encapsulated within the service, or copy the code to create something new. But those are the two options we have, and neither may be ideal.
As we continue to hack the system in this manner, with a multitude of other similar changes, the design will rot. Eventually, our Pay Bill service is transformed into a utility that performs all general-purpose bill functions. It’s API is a mix of coarse-grained and fine-grained operations. It’s become the monolith that we’re trying to avoid. While the Pay Bill service is still pretty reusable (it does everything now), it isn’t that usable. That tension between reuse and use surfaces again.
Our decision to modify the Pay Bill service to expose the duplicate check was driven by one thing - ease. It was our easiest option. Really, it was our only option. But it isn’t the best option.
If we architect all the way down, we have another option. A Pay Bill service composed of modules that audit the bill, check for duplicates, remit payment, and reconcile the payment means we can choose the desirable solution over the easiest short term choice. We can avoid the long term compromises that degrade architectural integrity.
Shown at right (click to enlarge), we see the service composed of modules. If we have a check for duplicates module, we can simply reuse that module in the new service or application that’s going to process electronic bills. Or we might expose the capabilities of the check for duplicates module as a separate service. We have multiple reuse entry points, as well as different levels of granularity through which our software entities can be managed, deployed, built, and much more.
My point here isn’t to debate the original design nor the decisions made to reuse the check for duplicates functionality in another service or application. Certainly, debating architectural and design decisions is a favorite past-time of developers. There are a variety of different ways that we can support new requirements as they emerge. Some are better than others and all are contextual.
The gist of my point is that architecture all the way down gives us options, and these options help maintain architectural integrity. They increase our options when making decisions and allow our system to accommodate unforeseen architectural shifts. I can modify an existing application or service to give me what I need. Or I can reuse an existing module that’s already available for me. Or I can compose a new service from an existing set of modules. Or I can break apart existing modules to create new modules that result in new services. And I can do a lot of this refactoring without significant impact on the existing code. This was an important point illustrated in the series of posts on Applied Modularity.
In other words, architecture all the way down helps increase architectural agility, and modularity is a key ingredient.